How to write interpretation in research paper
Use verbs how to write interpretation in research paper more than nouns. A THESIS STATEMENT SHOULD DO THE FOLLOWING: Outline and explain readers how you interpret research subject. I was sure I'd get an A the very first moment I started to read the paper. Determine the direction. Finally, you’ve understood how to linguistics dissertations online write qualitative data analysis.
The relevance to the field (this is completely your opinion) Jul 16, 2020 · A research paper is different from a research proposal (also known as a prospectus), although the writing process is similar Research Paper Outline and Format. Tabulate the information, how to write interpretation in research paper i.e., add up the number of ratings, rankings, yes's, no's for each question A useful tool for your research writing would be to look at an example of methodology in research paper where you coherent essay example would learn more about structuring principles for your methods paper section. In the body, write topic sentences and mention points for relevant examples. Write who has commissioned the report, what their objective was for the research and how the survey was designed to achieve this goal. You should provide your points and support your main idea.
GOOD WRITING EXAMPLE Jen was an excellent philosophy writer who received the following assignment: Evaluate Smith’s argument for the claim that people lack free will. If you are citing several statistics about the same topic, it may be best to …. Analysis paper writing requires a more or less strict structure. Next, you interpret those notes according to relevant criteria 4. Secondary analysis is usually contrasted with primary analysis, which is the analysis of primary data independently collected by a researcher Jul 19, 2016 · In short, your analysis should be article speech writing logical. report on the findings from relevant and appropriate inferential statistical analyses and interpretation that are aimed how to write interpretation in research paper at answering your academic article’s research questions or supporting your hypotheses, and show your research significance To start it is best to decide on a topic you wish to explore and is something that has meaning or is a subject area already known about. Your topic can very straight or has some obscure features.
The main thesis explains what the how to write interpretation in research paper papers are about and how the problem will how to write an abstract for a legal research paper be highlighted REMEMBER: Writing is the sharpened, focused expression of thought and study. Start each body paragraph with a topic sentence and provide arguments and relevant evidence to support it. . Specify the criteria you looked for in the data. Nov 04, 2019 · Secondary analysis is the practice of using secondary data in research. You may feel stressed when you get the assignment to write a case study analysis because it requires essential analytical skills. Avoid words like “get,” “it is,” “there is,” and the first person.
First of all, the main statement of the paper must be put into the first part of the text. Your objective in writing a literary analysis essay. For a data analysis report, ensure all of your information has been triple-checked for accuracy and https://mining20.org/how-to-write-an-overview-for-a-research-paper that the methods of discovery are comparable to the subject matter Tips for Writing the Methods Section for a Research Paper This part of a scientific text describes the study that was conducted. Once you gather all the data, the results statement should include three components to meet the criteria of the American Psychological Association's style. Present your claim which other people may want to dispute. All how to write interpretation in research paper first drafts of your summary papers should follow the order of the original article Writing A Data Analysis Research Paper.
Once you understand what you’re being asked to write in your research paper, it’s time to decide Step 3: Research. Terminology in research can be confusing for the novice research reader where a term like 'random' refers to an organized manner of selecting items or participants. The major difference is that ANOVA tests for one-way analysis with multiple variations, while a how to write interpretation in research paper t-test compares a paired sample. You should write as many body paragraphs as you have the key points Here are the best elements to a research paper: 1 The Introduction. Usually there is no good way to write a statistic. And now what you have been. 1) Because I am a novice when it comes to reporting the results of a linear mixed models analysis, how do I report the fixed effect, including including the estimate, confidence interval, and p.
Jen decided before she began writing her paper that Smith’s argument ultimately fails because it trades on an ambiguity. The findings how to write essay for university relate to the research questions that guided the study. You must give the right interpretation of the author’s views and …. After that, you should read it for a second time. For this reason how to write interpretation in research paper analysis essays are so much popular, especially in colleges and universities Mar 23, 2020 · The Process Step 1: Get Familiar with the Assignment. Writing up a one-way between-subjects design appears below. Jul 11, 2017 · summarize the collected data in the form of descriptive statistics and.
Interpretation paper to write in research how
However, research paper writing is aimed not just to discuss the topic but also to conduct careful research of a certain subject area after choosing the. Use of the correct data and statistical analysis technique is important to find the answer to your research questions or test the hypothesis. It is also one of the most difficult parts to write, and sometimes the longest. Your work is to spotlight only on the elements that put across the interpretation you are presenting, and to cover these in the most logical …. Use of the past tense when refering to your results Apr 17, 2017 · Write a section on the purpose of the research. The process starts with converting the data into textual form. This time you should make notes about things that can be helpful for your writing Apr 28, 2020 · To do this, follow these steps: Define the main goal(s) of your analysis. Oftentimes the best way to write descriptive statistics is to be direct. Answer the question you were asked. In an analytical research paper, you do research to become an expert on a topic so that how to write interpretation in research paper you can restructure and present the parts of the topic from.
Make sure that you included the full name of statistical tests used. Over the fine if josh started on the most writing services Oct 11, 2017 · Once you conduct your statistical analysis you will determine if the null hypothesis should be rejected in favor of the alternate hypothesis. By knowing how to write an outstanding analytical how to write interpretation in research paper paragraph, you will be able to deliver top notch academic papers for a remarkable performance Write your thesis here for reference: 1. This is a detail that will confirm the main point (and sub-clause) of your thesis. Additional Tips On Writing An Interpretive Essay: Ensure you come up with a new, interesting, or unique way of interpreting the literacy work. Data analysis summarizes collected data. Remember that it is impossible to address each and every aspect in a single paper. Additionally, other key sections of your discussion follow from your interpretations, including the implications, recommendations for further research, and conclusions It is not a secret that most people judge a book by the cover, so if you want your research paper to be read from A to Z, it is important to write a powerful introduction in research paper.
Tell readers what to expect from your paper. If you are not going to use the mode anywhere, don’t include it. Support Your Argument. Mar 28, 2011 · Write an Outline. We hope that this article was helpful to you. Nov 21, 2018 · Do not start two sentences the same way. Move on, explaining any quotation used and creating clarity about how it fits into your position. In an analytical research paper, you do research to become an expert on a topic so that you can restructure and present the parts of the topic from. In fact, the process how to write interpretation in research paper of writing a research paper can be one of the more rewarding experiences one may encounter in academics Analysis Paper Writing Process and Structure.
Interesting Things To Write A Research Paper Abot
Begin Your Analysis. In planning the formation of your analysis, focus upon the points you want to make, not on the structure of the work you are analyzing. These guidelines how to write interpretation in research paper will help you in writing any short essay. Analysis essays can evaluate both student’s knowledge on selected issues and their ability to express own thoughts and analyze topics. If you have lots of statistics to report, you should strongly consider presenting them in …. For instance, a research paper analyzing the possibility of life on other planets may look for the weight of evidence supporting a particular theory, or the scientific validity of particular publications Apr 28, 2020 · How to Write an Analysis Essay: Top 7 Rules for a Good Analysis It is standard to have to write an analysis essay in college or university. Remember to mention the data transformations if any, including data normalizing. Craft a strong opening sentence that will engage the reader. It sets the expanse, meaning, and importance of the investigation being accompanied by summarizing current understanding and background data about the. Just like the abstract, the purpose of a summary for the research paper will be to give the audience a brief overview of what that study says. Writing a rhetorical analysis should be in an active voice. Nov 21, 2018 · Do not start two sentences the same way.
You should read your how to write interpretation in research paper main text without any distractions around to do a real analysis. Write the quote here, with a way to introduce it: 2. Analyse the first argument made by the author (in case it’s a literary work) and then proceed to the next. Mar 24, 2020 · When I read your post on research papers analysis, it seems that this is the simplest thing in the world, but I’m afraid of failing. Then, the data gets organized. Describe graphical techniques …. Accordingly, she began her paper with the following. Sit Down. What Analysis Does: Breaks a work down to examine its various parts in close detail in order to see the work in a new light. As already indicated in the preceding …. It is impossible to write a such a task without creating drafts and outlines. You should provide your points and support your main idea.
Essay Writing Service Accepting Paypal
This article will provide detailed information about how to write the findings of a dissertation how to write interpretation in research paper This content belongs to the Manuscript Writing Stage Translate your research into a publication-worthy manuscript by understanding the nuances of academic writing. Indeed, a writer should not only present facts but also be able to explain and analyze them. Write the Summary. Dec 15, 2011 · Writing a good thought paper is similar. And to be able to distinguish between good and bad interpretations of research, you have to be willing and able to read the primary research literature for yourself home / writing resources / strategies for essay writing / How to Write a Comparative Analysis Throughout your academic career, you'll be asked to write papers in which you compare and contrast two things: two texts, two theories, two historical figures, two scientific processes, and so on Apr 28, 2020 · How to Write an Analysis Essay: Top 7 Rules for a Good Analysis It is standard to have to write an analysis essay in college or university. Here is a ten-step process to help you write a better source analysis paper. As you develop your writing skills, you will also improve your perceptions and increase your critical abilities. 1) …. If you quoted a passage, give your interpretation of the quotation. A t-test, for example, is reported in the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p < .001, where 18 is the number of degrees of freedom (N. It consists of the review n of the existing findings got by the well-known scientists. As you develop your writing skills, you will also improve your perceptions and increase your critical abilities.
You must give the right interpretation of the author’s views and …. Thorough evaluation of work. It involves the interpretation of data gathered through the use of analytical and logical reasoning to determine patterns, relationships or trends Writing a research paper is an essential aspect of academics and should not be avoided on account of one's anxiety. You might be asked to analyze a research paper, a movie, a company, a book, or an event or allowed to choose from a selection of analysis essay topics Analysis in Research Papers To analyze means to break a topic or concept down into its parts in order to inspect and understand it, and to restructure those parts in a way that makes sense to you. If you referred to information from a secondary source, …. The analysis section of an academic essay is extremely important. This may sound obvious, but it’s very important to understand what how to write interpretation in research paper your Step 2: Pick a Topic. Explain how the data were summarized and what measures of variability you have used.
Your work is to spotlight only on the elements that put across the interpretation you are presenting, and to cover these in the most logical …. In the conclusion, write the restatement of thesis How do you present your findings (qualitative)? If you are given a research paper assignment, you should create a list of tasks to be done and try to stick to your working schedule. writing a data analysis research paper Collecting qualitative data consumes a lot of time and resource but the results are worth it Mar 24, 2020 · A research papers analysis should include an evaluation of the manner in which the author. List what type of analysis or test you how to write interpretation in research paper conducted to test each hypothesis. Mar 31, 2020 · Here your main thesis should be indicated and emphasized, thanks to which all the details of the paragraph will be logically linked and completed. Premium Essays. It is best to write your thoughts freely, without guideline constraints.
Just because you’re writing an academic research paper …. You should learn to observe to learn how to write analysis paper. Writing up a 2 x 2 x 2 between-subjects factorial design. Mar how to write interpretation in research paper 24, 2020 · When I read your post on research papers analysis, it seems that this is the simplest thing in the world, but I’m afraid of failing. In this section, we focus on presenting descriptive statistical results in writing, in graphs, and in tables—following American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines for written research reports Helpful Tips on Composing a Research Paper Data Analysis Section. If your reflection paper was assigned to you, the format of your paper might depend on the criteria set by your professor. This segment should be written in the past sentence as you are describing what you have done in the past. Basic analysis of "quantitative" information (for information other than commentary, e.g., ratings, rankings, yes's, no's, etc.): Make copies of your data and store the master copy away. The direction can be, for instance, positive, negative, supporting, or opposed (Neuman, 2003) Academic Writing Observation Papers Writing a qualitative observation paper entails three processes. Create a heading for the analysis section of your paper. the mean, mode, median, and standard deviation.
How To Write A Research Paper For School
Accordingly, she began her paper with the following. editapaper.com is one of the best services I've ever worked with.". Select Your Topic. It is recommended that you complete your research and then start writing your work. If you did the research yourself for an academic paper, simply state that your purpose was to derive solid data on the subject at hand CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS 4.1 INTRODUCTION To complete this study properly, it is necessary to analyse the data collected in order to test the hypothesis and answer the research questions. Use the following guidelines for teaching how to write an interpretive essay or how to write a literary analysis: The introduction must introduce the literary work, capture the reader’s attention, and include a clearly written thesis statement that contains the literary interpretation Jan 17, 2019 · Critical analysis writing means evaluation of author’s work where it can be a news article analysis, a research journal article, a book, transcript of a conference or even a movie Analysis in Research Papers To analyze means to break a topic or concept down into its parts in order to inspect and understand it, and to restructure those parts in a way that makes sense to you. You might be asked to analyze a research paper, a movie, a company, a book, or an event or allowed to choose from a selection of analysis essay topics Oct 20, 2018 · To write a data analysis report, you need a spreadsheet program to sort your findings and a word processing or a comparable document-writing program. Background information and descriptions of methods, on the other hand, almost always appear in earlier sections of a research paper How To Write An Analysis Section Of An Academic Paper. You may decide go for the larger meanings of the whole work or some specific meaning of part of the work such as traits, symbol or setting aspects. Recall that when you how to write interpretation in research paper are writing up a results section you want to cover three things: a) Tell the reader the analysis that was conducted The key thing is to stay on your track and focus on your thesis. This is the first and obvious task for you.
What an Analysis Essay Does: Chooses selective pieces of evidence and analysis in order to arrive at one single, complex argument that makes a claim about the deeper meaning behind the piece being analyzed You can either write a traditional outline in complete sentences, or write an outline by using just a few key words to keep you on …. It rarely sounds good, and often interrupts the structure or how to write interpretation in research paper flow of your writing. The key thing is to stay on your track and focus on your thesis. . Your readers should be able to quickly identify the information and correlate it with the graphics, spreadsheets, tables, and charts. Research paper writing requires deep knowledge of the subject area and the review of the particular field. Summarize your analysis in one or two paragraphs, Craft the transition for the conclusion section of your research paper The Results section of a scientific research paper represents the core findings of a study derived from the methods applied to gather and analyze information. It should be brief -- typically under 200 words. Your critical essay will also be marked on …. Use Credible Research Sources. As a research method, it saves both time and money and avoids unnecessary duplication of research effort.
The analysis method might be a final step for the research design which divides it into two main categories;. Advertisements do, middle of life more how to write a regression analysis research paper than this post is the same crime. Integrate quotes into sentences to prove your point. It presents these findings in a logical sequence without bias or interpretation from the author, setting up the reader for later interpretation and evaluation in the Discussion section Analysis of three years of results from the same students in years 8, 9, and 10 shows a steady increase in algebraic thinking. Apr 17, 2017 · Public Interface. Identify the level or data Avoid technical or jargon texts. The task of interpretation has two major aspects viz., the effort to establish continuity in research through linking the results of a given study with those of another, and the establishment of some how to write interpretation in research paper explaflat concepts. GOOD WRITING EXAMPLE Jen was an excellent philosophy writer who received the following assignment: Evaluate Smith’s argument for the claim that people lack free will. In planning the formation of your analysis, focus upon the points you want to make, not on the structure of the work you are analyzing. Summarize. As you were able to write this excellent post, you’ll be able to write a research papers analysis for me too!
One of the how to write interpretation in research paper important steps is to prepare your data analysis. box chart depends on the nature of data and the interpretation a researcher …. The descriptive statistic should be relevant to the aim of study; it should not be included for the sake of it. Description of the weak and …. you could write "A paired-samples t-test was conducted to. It is the opening paragraph of student work. May 17, 2019 · Conduct your analysis. Writing ultimately boils down to the development of an idea. Write your analysis here (look for the subtle, key parts of the quote): Type; Importance; 4. We will also present a robust step-by-step process of how to write a critical analysis.. Tips on How to Write Analysis Paper.
Your findings represent the story you. When crafting your findings, the first thing you want to think about is how you will organize your findings. College reflection papers (also known as reflection essays) can typically range between about 400-800 words in length HOW TO WRITE AN EFFECTIVE RESEARCH PAPER • Getting ready with data • First draft • Structure of a scientific paper • Selecting a journal • Submission • Revision and galley proof Disclaimer: The suggestions and remarks in this presentation are based on personal research experience. Analysis essays are known to be one of the most difficult to write. Here’s where you present the background and context for the rest of your article. First, you record your observations of a particular setting or situation‐‐that is, take field notes. If you want to learn how to write the methods section, it is necessary to learn how to write about an experiment in the APA formatting style May 20, 2020 · Knowing how to write a case study analysis is one of the core skills you will need in college. Jan 25, 2017 · All of your work setting up the proposal and collecting data has been leading to th e interpretation of your findings. Subscribe and get curated reads that will help you write an excellent how to write interpretation in research paper manuscript CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS 4.1 INTRODUCTION To complete this study properly, it is necessary to analyse the data collected in order to test the hypothesis and answer the research questions.
Best Essay Writing Service In Us Reddit
Should be a paragraph within the research paper. Sep 21, 2015 · How to Write an Analysis Paragraph Contrary to what some students often think, knowing how to write an analysis how to write interpretation in research paper paragraph is one of the easiest tasks that you can master on the go. Sep 02, 2019 · Interpretation, for instance, is usually reserved for a later discussion section, though not always – qualitative research papers often combine findings and interpretation. Give. 1) Before reading the documents, write down the assigned question that you are going to address in your paper. Writing ultimately boils down to the development of an idea. Some fields prefer to put means and standard deviations in parentheses like this: Group A (87.5) scored higher than group B (77.9) while both had similar standard deviations (8.3 and 7.9 respectively). Example of such words includes “discuss,” “evaluate,” and “compare.”. Research practices and approaches vary Jun 26, 2019 · An abstract is a concise summary of an experiment or research project. One pair of schools outperformed the other three pairs on each occasion An analytical research paper is an academic piece of writing that is aimed at analyzing different points of view from multiple sources on a particular topic. In contrast to an argumentative research paper, you don’t have to persuade your readers that your personal point of view is correct and others are wrong..
Writing a research paper can be a little intimidating at times Step 4: Procedure of Data Analysis. Move on, explaining any quotation used and creating clarity about how it fits into your position. A research paper is a piece of academic writing based on its author’s original research on a particular topic and analysis together with interpretation of research findings. As you were able to write this excellent post, you’ll be able to write a research papers analysis for me too!. In other words, do not present a line-by-line, or section-by-section summary and how to write interpretation in research paper analysis of the piece. Consider all the requirements (spacing, margins, and font) Should be the writer’s own explanation of the chosen problem. Your objective in writing a literary analysis essay. As mentioned earlier, you need to review the work from top to bottom.
"The writer did a profound research and analysis, as well as referred to great and hard-to-find literature in my term paper. The use of box how to write interpretation in research paper plot vs. Think carefully about the causes and effects that could transpire from a given area or topic and also perhaps something that is controversial and open to discussion.. The paper should describe how the organization interacts with the public. Start each body paragraph with a topic sentence and provide arguments and relevant evidence to support it. More Exclusive Help for the Rhetorical Analysis Paper. Mar 27, 2019 · Final Thoughts: How to Write Qualitative Data Analysis Report. The words surrounding the most often words give the direction.
Article Writing On Taking Care Of Animals
That is why you need to pay careful attention to the research paper outline, as it will greatly simplify your future work and make the process of creating an assignment much simpler Aug 03, 2020 · Write an integral part with the attention of writing style, imagine our social distancing, the how to write a regression analysis research paper …. Write a paraphrase here (remember to keep the same meaning): 3. A good outline how to write interpretation in research paper is: 1) overview of the problem, 2) your data and modeling approach, 3) the results of your data analysis (plots, numbers, etc), and 4) your substantive conclusions. If you have lots of statistics to report, you should strongly consider …. 1. Use the copy for making edits, cutting and pasting, etc. Read the question statement carefully and note the phrases or words that seem to ask for a particular kind of thinking or writing activity. The introduction in a research paper is a special part of the work that leads the audience from a general topic area to a certain topic of inquiry.
As already indicated in the preceding chapter, data is …. Eager to reach the finishing line, they miss the …. Free Help Session: Chapters 1 and 2 During these sessions, students can get answers to introduction to the problem, background of study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, and theoretical.If you cited a statistic, tell the reader what it implies for your argument. Jun 27, 2019 · Written explanations. In the text, a systematic description of your results, highlighting for the reader observations that are most relevant to the topic under investigation [remember that not all results that emerge from the methodology that you used to gather the data may be relevant]. In this section, you main thoughts and ideas will come out in regards to the research that you have conducted for your work Once you have conducted your descriptive statistical analyses, you will need to present them to others. You probably have a Conduct research, both online and offline, to clarify the issue contained within your thesis statement. As Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab notes, how to write interpretation in research paper analysis is a useful tool for investigating content you find in various print and other sources, like journals and video media To form a truly educated opinion on a scientific subject, you need to become familiar with current research in that field. Write your evaluation here (prove why the quote is important in relation to your thesis): 5 May 10, 2019 · Make a comparison chart of keywords and phrases with similar or contrasting meanings that support the common theme, segregation. Read this question several times to yourself REMEMBER: Writing is the sharpened, focused expression of thought and study.
In other words, do not present a line-by-line, or section-by-section summary and how to write interpretation in research paper analysis of the piece. You will need to find out what information is relevant and explain it briefly but thoroughly. Identify the. Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style. Write Your Thesis Statement. Hopefully, writing the data analysis section of your academic papers should be easier in the future. Jen decided before she began writing her paper that Smith’s argument ultimately fails because it trades on an ambiguity. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers Include a table with the appropriate descriptive statistics e.g. Also, pay attention to other phrases that define and constrain your research’s scope Jul 14, 2020 · How do I Organize my Research Paper? Some fields prefer to put means and standard deviations in parentheses like this: Group A (87.5) scored higher than group B (77.9) while both had similar standard deviations (8.3 and 7.9 respectively). If you can sit down to write, youâ€™ve got 90% of the work behind you already In this article from our essay writing service, we will define critical analysis, list some topics and provide a critical analysis essay example to give you a better idea of your expected result. Ernest Hemingway famously said that â€œthe hardest part about writing is getting your ass in the chair.â€ And heâ€™s absolutely correct.
- You should write as many body paragraphs as you have the key points Jul 31, 2020 · Data analysis is the most crucial part of any research. how to write interpretation in research paper
- Therefore, it is important to understand the difference between how to write interpretation in research paper the two.
- Information for Writing an how to write interpretation in research paper APA Research Paper.
- “I n one how to write interpretation in research paper sense, interpretation is concerned with relationships within the collected data, partially overlapping analysis critiquing the literature, critical analysis, reviewing the literature, evaluation and appraisal of the literature which are in essence the same thing (Bassett and Bassett, 2003).
- Writing up the analysis is the how to write interpretation in research paper bulk of the project.
The first paragraph of your work must be catchy, inspiring and interesting, motivating the audience to go on reading It includes statistical analysis and a brief write up about whether or not the results emerging as a results of analysis are significant. It depends on your Begin Your Analysis. For example, an analysis of a sit-down restaurant might describe the specific employee positions charged with greeting and seating customers, such as hosts or maitre d’hotels, and positions responsible for taking orders, refilling beverages or offering bread or desserts Jul 19, 2019 · Box charts and box plots are often used to visually represent research data. When you have to write a case study, you’re expected to find a solution to a problem, which may not be easy Mar 28, 2011 · Write an Outline. Use a quote from a …. Yet, many students write it in a rushed manner. As a writer, make sure the methods section demonstrates how the research hypothesis is going to be proved or the problem under investigation analyzed Divide the outline into introduction, body, and conclusion. Text evidence. Data coding swiftly. The purpose of the abstract is to summarize the research paper by stating the purpose of the research, the experimental method, the findings, and the conclusions Sep 19, 2016 · The discussion section is a very important part of your dissertation or research paper. Still, writing a rhetorical analysis can be trickier than you expect Jan 17, 2019 · Critical analysis writing means evaluation of author’s work where it can be a news article analysis, a research journal article, a book, transcript of a conference or even a movie Jan 25, 2019 · How you do so will depend on what type of how to write interpretation in research paper evidence you have used.
How To Write A Research Paper On Water Conservation
Therefore, the researcher needs to find which type of data is required for the study. May 17, 2019 · Data collection is only the beginning of the research paper writing process. how to write interpretation in research paper In the introduction, write the hook, thesis statement, and a sentence about how the thesis statement will be defended. Integrate quotes into sentences to prove your point.
Writing A Good Dissertation Abstract
How To Write A Research Paper On Environmental Issues
- what sources review college level books
- top rated essay writing service
- article writing on hard work
- bbc bitesize writing a newspaper article
- legit essay writing service reddit
- writing articles for magazines australia
- interesting things to write a research paper on